The transverse (or cross-) section of a bamboo leaf blade shows features such as the presence of arm and fusoid cells that are characteristic of bamboos generally, but variations in these and other features can help to distinguish among major groups within the bamboos. For additional information on grass leaf anatomy and terminology, please consult Ellis (1976). [Ellis, R. P. 1976. A procedure for standardizing comparative leaf anatomy in the Poaceae. I. The leaf blade as viewed in transverse section. Bothalia 12: 65-109.]
FA-1. Vasculature of the midrib: 0 = one larger bundle with one or more superposed smaller bundles; 1 = two or more (usually at least three) bundles in an arc; 2 = one single bundle.
FA-2. Midrib protrusion: 0 = protruding adaxially and abaxially approximately equally; 1 = protruding strongly adaxially only; 2 = protruding abaxially only.
FA-3. Intercostal sclerenchyma in mesophyll: 0 = absent; 1 = present.
FA-4. Intercostal sclerenchyma in mesophyll, distribution: 0 = abaxial only; 1 = adaxial only; 2 = both abaxial and adaxial.
FA-5. Arm cell shape in outline (transverse section, only the row directly beneath the adaxial epidermis, between midrib and margin): 0 = cells more or less blocky, equidimensional; 1 = cells vertically elongated.
FA-6. Arm cell invagination (transverse section, only the row directly beneath the adaxial epidermis, between midrib and margin): 0 = entire, no lobing or invagination; 1 = rosette (lobing more or less shallow and all around); 2 = asymmetrically invaginated, abaxial side; 3 = asymmetrically invaginated, adaxial side.
FA-7. Fusoid cells (score as present even if found only in part of the blade transverse section): 0 = present; 1 = absent.
FA-8. Abaxial sclerenchyma girder of primary bundles: 0 = more or less straight-sided (whether narrow or wide); 1 = dilated (narrower at the bundle, becoming wider toward the epidermis).
FA-9. Adaxial sclerenchyma girder of primary bundles: 0 = narrow to slightly dilated (one or a few columns wide); 1 = anchor-shaped (surface between bulliform cell groups lined with sclerenchyma cells).
FA-10. Bundle sheath cells (outer layer): 0 = empty; 1 = containing few to several small chloroplasts.
FA-11. Bulliform cell groups: 0 = even with or slightly lower than the adaxial epidermis; 1 = elevated relative to the adaxial epidermis.
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