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Flowers and Fruits

FF-1. Lodicule number: 0 = absent; 1 = three; 2 = two.

FF-2. Lodicule margin pubescence: 0 = ciliate (l) or ciliolate (r); 1 = glabrous (entire).

FF-3. Stamen number: 0 = two; 1 = three; 2 = six; 3 = > 6.

FF-4. Stamen filaments: 0 = free; 1 = monadelphous.

FF-5. Anther apex: 0 = lobes rounded; 1 = lobes apiculate.

FF-6. Anther connective: 0 = lower than apical anther lobes, not extended; 1 = narrow and slightly (l) to greatly (r) elongated; 2 = as wide as anther apex and shortly elongated.

FF-7. Style base/ovary apex: 0 = ovary apex narrow and continuous with the style base (normal); 1 = ovary apex blunt, the style base forming an expanded cap (or hood) on top; 2 = ovary apex blunt, hood absent.

FF-8. Style proper length: 0 = absent (including extremely short, less than 0.1 mm); 1 = elongated by over 0.1 mm up to the length of the ovary; 2 = elongated and greater than the length of the ovary.

FF-9. Style proper pubescence: 0 = glabrous; 1 = pubescent.

FF-10. Style proper core: 0 = hollow; 1 = solid.

FF-11. Stigma number: 0 = three; 1 = two; 2 = one.

FF-12. Stigma branching: 0 = very branched and plumose (2 or more orders of branching); 1 = limited branching/simple, hispid (1 order of branching).

FF-13. Caryopsis/ovary base: 0 = sessile; 1 = stalked (stipitate).

FF-14. Caryopsis apex: 0 = acute, no additional persistent structures; 1 = short style, style base (if style elongated) or short style plus stigma bases persistent; 2 = thickened style base persistent, often a slight constriction between the caryopsis apex and the style base evident or a distinct line or ridge present in this position; 3 = elongated style persistent; 4 = hood (cap) persistent.

FF-15. Pericarp adnation (in mature fruit): 0 = strongly adnate to the seed coat (separates only with great difficulty or not at all through cutting, scraping or rubbing); 1 = not adnate to the seed coat (separates easily through cutting, scraping or rubbing).

FF-16. Pericarp texture: 0 = thin, papery and dull; 1 = thin, hardened and shiny; 2 = thickened, fleshy.

FF-17. Embryo position (caryopsis in longitudinal side view): 0 = lateral at the base; 1 = central at the base.

Life Span and Rhizomes
Culms
Buds and Branching
Culm Leaves
Foliage Leaves
Synflorescences
Spikelets
Flowers and Fruits
Leaf Anatomy
Leaf Micromorphology


FF-2, click for larger image

FF-4, click for larger image

FF-5, click for larger image

FF-6, click for larger image

FF-7, click for larger image

FF-8, click for larger image

FF-9, click for larger image

FF-12, click for larger image

FF-13, click for larger image

FF-14, click for larger image

FF-15, click for larger image

FF-16, click for larger image

FF-17, click for larger image

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Contact - Dr. Lynn Clark   Copyright © 2005-2006, Iowa State University. All rights reserved.