by C. DREWES      home  >>

NOTE: Animations cycle, but it may take extra time for images to load & play through the first cycle.
Red dots
] & adjacent text open 'interactive animations' with computations or animation-control features. 
Black dots
] open GIF animations with questions & links[Interactive animation software developed by T. Drewes]



Protoplasmic streaming: giant algal cell Sinusoidal swimming in vinegar eel (nematode)
Motion of one cilium (mollusk) Swimming in horsehair worm (Nematomorpha)
Ciliary wave motion Sinusoidal swimming: leech
Flagellar movement (sea urchin sperm) Helical swimming in oligochaete (Lumbriculus)
HEART RATE & CIRCULATION Helical swimming in aquatic oligochaete (Dero)
Helisoma heart beat-I (baby snail) Body reversal: Lumbriculus (aquatic oligochaete)
Helisoma heart beat-II  (juvenile snail) Tail withdrawal: rapid escape (tubificid worm)
Helisoma heart beat-III (adult snail) Peristaltic crawling: oligochaete worm
Lumbriculus dorsal blood vessel (mid-body pulse rate) Swimming in ostracod
Lumbriculus dorsal blood vessel (pulse rate in tail) Swimming in daphnid
Lumbriculus dorsal blood vessel (pulse velocity) Swimming in copepod


Crayfish escape reaction to head touch
Freshwater sponge: water currents Crayfish escape reaction to tail touch
Snail tentacle pulsations (parasite-infected) Walking in millipede
Head & tail regeneration (Lumbriculus) Running in centipede
Daphnid eye rotation Jumping in springtail
Glow worm bioluminescence Fluid propulsion swimming: dragonfly nymph

View frame-by-frame images of locomotion in these invertebrates as a down-loadable sequence of PowerPoint slides:

vinegar eel swim leech swim Dero (oligochaete) swim Lumbriculus swim daphnid swim
ostracod swim copepod swim millipede walk centipede run springtail jump

For additional information or questions, feel free to contact C. Drewes at:
MAIL: Charlie Drewes, Science-II Building, EEOB, Iowa State University, Ames, 50011
515-294-8061    WEB: