In early papers (Loiselle et al. 1995; Kalisz et al. 2001), we introduced a measure of inter-individual genetic relatedness that has become the default in the most-widely-used software for the spatial autocorrelation analyses of fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) within populations. We have used this measure, a kinship coefficient (denoted Fij), in a number of studies investigating the various factors influencing dispersal and evolution of genetic structure within plant populations, including life-stage effects (Kalisz et al. 2001; Chung et al. 2003), vegetative reproduction and clonal spread (Chung et al. 2004a), inbreeding (Chung et al. 2004b, 2005a, Chung & Nason 2007), a population's successional stage (Chung et al. 2007; Chung et al. 2011), disturbance history (Parker et al. 2001; Chung et al. 2002; Chung & Nason 2007; Chung et al. 2014), and hybridization of a rare species with a wide-spread congener (Chung et al. 2005b). We have also developed software for conducting spatial-autocorrelation analysis of FSGS in three dimensions, which we have used in studying seed dispersal in an epiphytic orchid (Trapnell et al. 2004).